Types of analytical procedures

 Definition of Analytical Procedures

Types of analytical procedures
Types of analytical procedures

 Analytical Procedures mean estimate of monetary information through contrast and relations with other monetary and non-monetary information. Logical measures also comprise exploration.

if definite ethics are considerably different from predictable values.”

The natural world and instance of logical process.

Analytical measures comprise an estimate of key dealings between monetary and non-monetary statistics (called Ratio analysis and sensibleness Testing) and then making a contrast.

These contrast can be made with:

Preceding accounting era (by analyzing trends).

Probable consequences (e.g. with finances, forecasts, or prospect residential by the auditor).

Manufacturing Average consequences or with participants.

Similar parts of the same article (e.g. results of one branch or separation may be in contrast with other brushwood or partitions.

Limitations of Analytical Procedures:

Its helpfulness depends on the excellence of fundamental monetary information.

To make a contrast, information must be intended on a reliable basis.

Two facts used to compute the ratio must be rationally related.

To appreciate the meaning of ratios and motive of dissimilarity, the auditor must have a physically powerful understanding of the entity’s production.


1.  Decide the aptness of logical measures for a given assertion. investigative measures are useful.

When dealings are expected and believable e.g. association between auction revenue and selling payment.

2.  Assess the consistency of facts from which the auditor’s anticipation is residential.

The steadfastness of data for commonsense measures is partial by the following features. Supply of facts (e.g. self-regulating source is more dependable).

Natural history and weight of data. Manage over the training of data (to make sure its accuracy and wholeness)

Comparability of data (e.g. Extensive manufacturing data may need to be an enhancement to be analogous for a company selling a single manufactured good.


3.  Extend anticipation of evidence amount which is adequately exact to recognize misstatement.

The exact expectation depends on.

Accessibility of the information, both monetary and non-monetary.

The extent to which order can be disaggregated. Accuracy with which probable results can be forecast.

Decide the quantity of dissimilarity. Which is satisfactory without more investigation. The suitable difference is prejudiced by.


− Risk appraisal

− Preferred Level of declaration

If relations are conflicting with other in order or difference between predictable worth and the genuine value is imperative, the auditor shall examine the difference by:

1. Inquiring of organization,

2. Substantiate the organization’s clarification on the origin of the auditor’s sympathetic of the creature and its surroundings.

And another audit confirmation attains during the audit. If sufficient elucidation is given, adequate fitting audit confirmation has been acquired.

If clarification is not given or clarification is not sufficient, audit substantiation has not been acquired. The auditor shall execute other measures as essential e.g. Tests of particulars.

For more clarification with example


Let's talk about analytical events....!

Now, with logical measures, keep in mind over here. We said audit measures. Two types of difficult details of balance sheet transactions, equilibrium.

And revelation and logical measures, that's what we're appearing at now. Now, what are logical measures? That's part of your ICORRIIA. Logical measures are the study of data contrast and relations.

How information's evaluated or relate to relations. This is based on the expectation or anticipation theory. This transaction with ratios, ratio psychiatry. So what we're appearing at is how does the number compare?

How does it relate based on the anticipation? What did you get against what did you be expecting to get?

That informs us that you know what? This explanation may have been distorted by more or less than we predicted. So we're going to do this at the commencement of the audit. We're going to do this at the end of the audit.

Because at the opening, we're departing to look at all the customer's transactions. So for example, here's let's say X1, here X2, dollar alter, percentage alter and we're going to set up maybe limit.

We're going to say, we're looking at all the modify greater than 10,000 dollars and five percent. Now become aware of, this is because you may have a modify in this explanation by one million dollars but it's only one percent.

Well, that's sensible. You may have one more that's a 42 percent vary. But it's only 27 dollars, who mind? irrelevant. What you're appearing for is a 17,000 dollar modify.

That's maybe nine percent. You know what? That goes beyond both 10,000 and five percent. That's amazing that maybe we didn't expect it. So when preparing the audit you be seated.

And you go, you know what? In looking at the modify, this is the present year, the previous year, PY. So here's the present year, here's PY which means the previous year. At the end of the audit, you do the same thing.

Because as I talk about previously, this is called the test of particulars. This is when you appear at the feature and you're looking.

But the difficulty is you get lost. When you can't see the afforest for the trees. Because you're in the feature of the trees.

Does this change seem sensible? That's evaluated. That is relations. So the assessment, relations, expectation, anticipation, ratio analysis. That's a significant thing.

A pair of different assessments you can do. Now another mnemonic or memory aid is CRAFT, meaning customer versus manufacturing. So one of the things we do is what is the customer against the manufacturing standard? So for case, maybe we're looking at customer sales. And we're looking at how it contrasts with the revenues of contestants. Related balance sheet.

So for example, how does the modify in attention expense be exaggerated by the change in notes due? loans due, bonds payable?

I mean you are expecting an association right? If I've got a home advance.

At five percent then you be expecting your attention expense to be, you recognize, based on that. So if attention expenditure goes up and down but this hasn't distorted, there's a difficulty there. Genuine versus budget again, really what did you anticipate versus what did you get. Maybe things that don't modify, maybe payroll expenditure.

Payroll outlay, unless you employ or bonfire a lot of people, should be attractive reliable. 

If each person got a three percent raise then payroll expenditure should go up by about three percent. If it goes up by 13 percent, you go maybe there's an error there. monetary versus non-monetary.  Airlines might say a number of travelers versus total airline revenues. So they're saying, okay let's look at the commuter, the revenues, and kind of contrast that. Current year versus the previous year. This year, the preceding year. So let's look at, for example, profits statement amounts this year versus the previous year.

Now, an inquiry that's come up. 

What is better for logical measures, balance sheet, or income declaration? Hmm, balance sheet or income declaration, let's think about it.

The balance sheet is what? increasing, right? Beginning cash plus the modify in cash generation ending cash but it's increasing, the ending comprise the beginning.

Whereas an income declaration is this year only, this year only.

So, income declarations are better for logical events because balance sheets change day to day to day, where the income declaration. You are expectant there to be some constancy throughout the year.  If I look at total sales this year versus expenses of goods sold, the proportion should be similar next year and next year and next year.

Sales should stay attractive reliable or perhaps go up every year but we're going to look at that while cash, a balance sheet explanation. Let's say on December 31st I get an enormous amount of forestallment, cash goes way up.

Maybe I've made a forestallment, cash goes way down. So you can play with person balance sheet numbers pretty easily whereas your income is buildup basis right? It's an increasing world, we're using accumulation accounting which we'll learn in financial and in regulation as well for tax purposes. Cash versus accrual but on the whole accrual basically says. we're looking at the money earned. whether you conventional it or not.

So that’s how we can go from side to side events logically to get confirmation.

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